Gwo chòk ki twomatize fanmi

June 13, 2018
Health and Mental Care
News

Se Juliana Gerena, Psy.D ak Raven Oshiro, M.S ki ekri atik sa a

Reyaksyon yon moun parapò a yon esperyans ki twomatize li kab fè ni moun ki viktim nan ni fanmi li gen gran doulè emosyonèl. Anpil fwa yo rele esperyans sa a gwo chòk endirèk sa yo rele ann Angle Vicarious Trauma (VT), se yon tèm yo sèvi pou dekri chanjman moun santi poutèt yo swa tande sa k pase yon moun ki viktim yon gwo chòk, oubyen lè yo wè yon lòt moun k ap soufri anba kèk doulè emosyonèl (1). Yo kab sèvi ak mo VT a pou esplike sa yon fanmi santi lè yo pran yon gwo chòk dezyèm men ak estrès yo santi tou, fatig yo, epi jan yo vin veyatif anpil anpil. Gen anpil pwogrè ki fèt pou ede idantifye lè moun sibi gran chòk epi ki efè sa gen sou tout fanmi. Esperyans sa yo kab pote chanjman ni pou moun ki viktim nan ni pou fanmi li; pami chanjman sa yo se kab chanjman nan idantite yon moun, nan lide l sou sa k ap pase nan lemonn, epi nan vi espirityèl li. Gen tout kalite vyolans sou latè a ki kab afekte nenpòt moun ak fanmi li. Poutèt sa, lè yon moun enfòme sou tout kalite gwo chòk yon moun kab sibi sa amelyore kapasite moun sa a pou l idantifye jan pou l pwoteje tèt li epi mete sa l aprann nan ann aplikasyon pou l evite kèk gwo chòk pi devan.

Ki sa ki mennen nan Devlopman chòk moun pran dezyèm men? 

Lè yon moun viktim yon gwo chòk moun ki nan fanmi yo eseye ede moun sa a ki nan bezwen an; men, lè y ap fè esè sa yo, yo oblije koute sa k pase nan sa ki ba yo gran chòk la plizyè fwa. Nan bay moun ki nan bezwen an sipò emosyonèl sa kab pot plis estrès pou fanmi an, kòm rezilta sa kab pote sentòm chòk dezyèm men pou fanmi k ap bay kout men an. Sentòm sa yo k ap prezante poutèt jan moun k ap ede a toujou an konvèsasyon ak moun ki viktim gwo chòk la, oubyen akòz esperyans pèsonèl manm fanmi an genyen ak gwo chòk li sibi. Men kèk sentòm segondè yon moun kab santi: kè sou biskèt, depresyon, kè pa kontan, ret apa, epi moun nan vin santi li nenpòt bagay kab rive l. Sentòm sa yo varye tou depan de laj yon moun, si se yon fi oubyen yon gason, kalite gwo chòk fanmi an sibi, sipò sosyal, sipò kiltirèl, epi sa ki lakòz gwo tèt chaje nan lavi moun nan kounye a (2). Lè fanmi yo vin pi enfòme sou sa ki kab lakòz lòt sitiyasyon ki kab twomatize yo epi sa ka ede yo reprann yo.

Dapre rechèch yo fè plis pase mwatye timoun fè fas a omwen yon sitiyasyon ki ba yo gwo chòk (3). Sitiyasyon sa yo se kapab abi yo fè yo, yo pa okipe yo, vyolans nan fanmi an oswa nan kominote a, epi separasyon paran yo (3). Timoun ki sibi gwo chòk kab gen pwoblèm adapte yo ak lekòl yo, yo kab pa gen bon jan relasyon ak fanmi yo epi ak kanmarad yo, epi yo kab gen difikilte kontwole emosyon yo (3). Dapre enfòmasyon ki soti nan Asosiyasyon Sikològ Ameriken (APA) to vyolans lakay timoun piti ak jèn timoun ogmante; valè fwa timoun wè zak vyolans ogmante sot nan 39 pou san rive nan 85 pou san, valè timoun ki viktim ogmante a 66 pou san, epi valè ti jènjan ak ti jènfi ki fè fas ak abi seksyèl ogmante sot nan 24 pou san al nan 43 pou san.  Apa de move esperyans sa yo, gen anpil timoun piti ak jèn timoun ki pran gwo chòk tankou frakti yo pa atann. APA fè konnen gen 7.9 milyon timoun ki al pran swen medikal poutèt swa yo te nan aksidan machin, swa yo sot tonbe, swa yo manke neye. Kèlkeswa gwo chòk timoun sibi sa fè gwo efè sou tout fanmi an.

Sa sa vle di pou fanmi?

Fè moun konnen epi chache konnen faktè riks ki twomatize moun kapab ede paran idantifye siy ki pou di si yo ap fè fas ak gwo chòk endirèk.  Esperyans twomatizan sa yo se esperyans ki kab lakòz anpil tò nan devlopman jenn moun, kon sa tou yo kab lakoz domaj emosyonèl, domaj fizik epi menm domaj emosyonèl pou fanmi an. Lè nan yon fanmi y ap chache eseye konbat chagren yon moun nan fanmi an santi, sa ka lakoz tèt chache ak santiman dezespwa. Lè yon fanmi okouran enpak  gwo chòk ka genyen sou fanmi an epi lè fanmi an konnen pou li pran prekosyon, pou li rete estab epi pou yo mete yon atmosfè ki familyal tout bon nan kay la, sa kab ede fanmi an vin gen fòs pou l reziste. Fanmi yo kab mete yon atmosfè sekirite nan kay la nan rekòmanse ak woutin abityèl yo tankou fè timoun yo tounen lekòl, patisipe nan aktivite kominotè, rekòmanse sèvi soupe aswè. Menm si rive fè tout bagay sa yo se pa bagay k ap fasil, pratike ti woutin sa yo kab fè fanmi an santi li repran ekilib li, epi yo rekòmanse ap viv fason yo te konn viv anvan esperyans lan. Aktivite sa yo kab ede fanmi an pran kouraj epi pou yo pran prekosyon nesesè nan kominote a pou evènman konsa pa rive ankò nan fanmi an. Si fanmi an ta bezwen èd yo kapab tcheke ajans lokal yo, lekòl yo, ak moun nan fanmi an ki nan kominote a. Etan yon kominote sa enpòtan anpil pou nou rekonèt enpak gwo chòk gen sou pitit nou epi sou fanmi an.

 

Juliana Gerena, Psy.D te fonde Gerena and Associates nan Coral Springs, FL. Yon antrepriz prive ki ap vize bay swen pou maladi mantal pou timoun, granmoun, koup. Ak fanmi. Gerena pran yon doktora sikoloji pratik nan Albizu University epi li gen 20 an esperyans nan travay ak popilasyon ki te viktim espesyalman ak timoun epi ak fanmi yo. Raven Oshiro, M.S kandida pou yon doktora nan Sikoloji pratik nan Albizu University. Kounye a li ap konplete travay lekòl ak estaj li nan Gerena and Associates nan sèvi timoun ak fanmi yo. Pou plis enfòmasyon vizite: Gerena-associates.com.

Referans:

(1) Adams, S. A., & Riggs, S. A. (2008). An exploratory study of vicarious trauma among therapist trainees. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 2(1), 26.

(2) Straussner, S. L. A., & Calnan, A. J. (2014). Trauma through the life cycle: a review of current literature. Clinical Social Work Journal, 42(4), 323-335.

(3) Perez, N. M., Jennings, W. G., Piquero, A. R., & Baglivio, M. T. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and suicide attempts: the mediating influence of personality development and problem behaviors. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(8), 1527-1545.

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